Dane demograficzne

Demographic history of Poland

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Changes of Poland's population through centuries

DatePopulationPopulation density
km²
State
200938,130,302[49]
Poland
200638 125 000122,0Poland
200038 253 955122,0Poland
199538 610 000
Poland
199038 183 000
Poland
7 XII 198837 879 000121,1People's Republic of Poland
7 XII 197835 061 000112,2People's Republic of Poland
8 XII 197032 642 000104,4People's Republic of Poland
6 XII 196029 776 00095,3People's Republic of Poland
3 XII 195025 008 00080,0People's Republic of Poland
14 II 194623 930 00076,6People's Republic of Poland
31 XII 193834 849 00089,7Second Polish Republic
9 XII 193132 107 00082,6Second Polish Republic
30 IX 192127 177 00069,9Second Polish Republic
191122 110 000
Partitioned Poland
184611 107 000
Partitioned Poland
c. 177214 000 00019Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
c. 165011 000 000
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
c. 15007 500 00015 in Poland
5 in Grand Duchy
Polish–Lithuanian union
13702 500 0009,3Kingdom of Poland
13201 750 0008Kingdom of Poland
c. 10001 800 0007Kingdom of Poland
Sources: GUSThe World Factbook

Polish people were formed from the slow mergers and assimilations of various tribes living on what became Poland's territories in the early Middle Ages. The Historical demography of Polandshows that in the past, Poland's demography was much more diverse than at present. For many centuries, until the end of World War II, the Polish population was composed of many significantethnic minorities.

[edit]Kingdom of Poland (966–1569)

Around the year 1000, the population of Polish lands is estimated at about 1,000,000[1] to 1,250,000.[2] Around 1370 Poland had 2 millions inhabitants with a population density of 8.6 per square kilometre.[3] Poland was less affected by the Black Death thanwestern Europe.[3]
Although the population of the Kingdom of Poland in late Middle Ages consisted mostly of Poles, influx of other cultures was significant: particularly notable were Jewish and German settlers, who often formed significant minorities or even majorities in urban centers. Sporadically migrants from other places like ScotlandNetherlands settled in Poland as well. At that time other notable minorities included various incompletely assimilated people from other Slavic tribes (some of whom would eventually merge totally into the Polish people, while others merged into neighboring nations).
Around 1490, combined population of Poland and Lithuania, in a personal union (the Polish–Lithuanian union) since the Union of Krewo a century before, is estimated at about 8 million.[4] An estimate for 1493 gives the combined population of Poland and Lithuania at 7.5 million, breaking them down by ethnicity at 3.25 million Poles, 3.75 million Ruthenians and 0.5 million Lithuanians.[5]The Ruthenians composed most of the Grand Duchy population; this is the reason why the late GDL is often called a Slavic country, alongside PolandRussia etc. In time, the adjective "Lithuanian" came to denote a Slav of the Grand Duchy.[6] Eventually the Lithuanian speakers came to be known as Samogitians (see also Samogitian nobility), after the province in which they were the dominant majority.[6] Another estimate for the combined population at the beginning of the 16th century gives 7.5 million, roughly split evenly, due to much larger territory of the Grand Duchy (with about 10-15 people per square km in Poland and 3-5 people per square km in the Grand Duchy, and even less in the south-east Cossack borderlands).[3][7] By 1500, about 15% of Poland's population lived in urban centers (settlements with over 500 people).[8]

[edit]Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (1569–1795)

By 1600, about 25% of Poland's population lived in urban centers (settlements with over 500 people).[8] Major towns in Poland included: Gdańsk (Danzig) (70,000), Kraków (28,000), Warsaw(20,000-30,000), Poznań (20,000), Lwów (Lviv) (20,000), Elbląg (Elbing) (15,000), Toruń (Thorn) (12,000), Sandomierz (4,000-5,000), Kazimierz Dolny (4,000-5,000) and Gniezno (4,000-5,000).[8]
The population of the Commonwealth of both nations was never overwhelmingly either Roman Catholic or Polish. This resulted from Poland's possession of Ukraine and federation with Lithuania; in both these countries ethnic Poles were a distinct minority. The Commonwealth comprised primarily three nations: PolesLithuanians, and Ukrainians and Belarusians (the latter two usually referred to together as Ruthenians). Shortly after the Union of Lublin (1569), at the turn of the 16th to 17th century, the Commonwealth population was around 7 million, with a rough breakdown of 4.5m Poles, 0.75m Lithuanians, 0.7m Jews and 2m Ruthenians.[9] In 1618, after the Truce of Deulino the Commonwealth population increased together with its territory, reaching 12 millions that could be roughly divided into: Poles - 4.5m, Ukrainians - 3.5m, Belarusians - 1.5m, Lithuanians - 0.75m, Prussians - 0.75m, Jews - 0.5m, Livionians - 0.5m; at that time nobility formed 10% andburghers, 15%.[10] Population losses of 1648-1667 are estimated at 4m.[10] Coupled with further population and territorial losses, in 1717 Commonwealth population had fallen to 9m, roughly 4.5m Poles, 1.5m Ukrainians, 1.2m Belarusians, 0.8m Lithuanians, 0.5m Jews, 0.5m others[10] The urban population was hit hard, falling to below 10%.[11]
To be Polish, in the non-Polish lands of the Commonwealth, was then much less an index of ethnicity than of religion and rank; it was a designation largely reserved for the landed noble class(szlachta), which included Poles but also many members of non-Polish origin who converted to Catholicism in increasing numbers with each following generation. For the non-Polish noble such conversion meant a final step of Polonization that followed the adoption of the Polish language and culture.[12] Poland, as the culturally most advanced part of the Commonwealth, with the royal court, the capital, the largest cities, the second-oldest university in Central Europe (after Prague), and the more liberal and democratic social institutions has proven an irresistible magnet for the non-Polish nobility in the Commonwealth.[13]
As a result, in the eastern territories a Polish (or Polonized) aristocracy dominated a peasantry whose great majority was neither Polish nor Roman Catholic. Moreover, the decades of peace brought huge colonization efforts to Ukraine, heightening the tensions among noblesJewsCossacks (traditionally Orthodox), Polish and Ruthenian peasants. The latter, deprived of their native protectors among the Ruthenian nobility, turned for protection to cossacks that facilitated violence that in the end broke the Commonwealth. The tensions were aggravated by conflicts betweenEastern Orthodoxy and the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church following the Union of Brest, overall discrimination of Orthodox religions by dominant Catholicism,[14] and several Cossack uprisings. In the west and north, many cities had sizable German minorities, often belonging to Reformed churches. The Commonwealth had also one of the largest Jewish diasporas in the world.
Until the Reformation, the szlachta were mostly Catholic or Eastern Orthodox. However, many families quickly adopted the Reformed religion. After the Counter-Reformation, when the Roman Catholic Church regained power in Poland, the szlachta became almost exclusively Roman Catholic, despite the fact that Roman Catholicism was not a majority religion (the Roman Catholic and Orthodox churches counted approximately 40% of the population each, while the remaining 20% were Jews and members of various Protestant churches).[15] It should be noted that the Counter-Reformation in Poland, influenced by the Commonwealth tradition of religious tolerance, was based mostly on Jesuit propaganda, and was very peaceful when compared to excesses such as theThirty Years' War elsewhere in Europe.
In the late 18th century, first statistical estimates of Commonwealth population appeared. Aleksander Busching estimated the number of Commonwealth population for 8,5 millions; Józef Wybickiin 1777 for 5,391,364; Stanisław Staszic in 1785 for 6 millions; and Fryderyk Moszyński in 1789 for 7,354,620.[16] Modern estimates tend to be higher; by 1770, on the eve of the partitions, Commonwealth had a population of about 11m[17]-14m,[18][19] about 10% of that - Jewish.[17] The nobility comprised about 10%, the burghers, about 7-8%.[17]

[edit]Partitions (1795–1918)

By the First Partition in 1772, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth lost about 211 000 km² (30% of its territory, amounting at that time to about 733 000 km²),[20] with a population of over four to five million people (about a third of its population of 14 million before the partitions).[19]
After the Second Partition, Commonwealth lost about 307 000 km², being reduced to 223 000 km².[20] Only about 4 million people remained in Poland at that time, which makes for a loss of another third of its original population, about a half of the remaining.[21]
After the Third Partition, overall, Austria had gained about 18 percent of the former Commonwealth territory (130,000 km²) and about 32 percent of the population (3.85 million people).[22] Prussia had gained about 20 percent of the former Commonwealth territory 149,000 km²) and about 23 percent of the population (2.6 million people).[22] Russia had gained about 62 percent of the former Commonwealth territory (462,000 km²) and about 45 percent of the population (3.5 million people).[22]
An estimate for 1815 gives 11 million Poles, out of which 5m were under Russian control (4 million in Congress Poland and 1 million in the territories incorporated into the Russian Empire), 3.5m in the Prussian partition territories and 3m in the Austrian partition territories.[23]
Congress Poland had a population of about 4.25 million around 1830.[24] In the Russian partition, the Pale of Settlement resulted in resettlement of many Russian Jews to the western fringes ofRussian Empire, which now included part of Poland. This further increased the sizable community of Polish Jews. By 1914, about 31 million people inhabited the territories that would become theSecond Polish Republic, the First World War saw the population of those territories drop to 26 million.[18]

Mother tongue in Poland, based on 1931 census

[edit]Second Polish Republic (1918–1939)

Before World War II, the Polish lands were noted for the richness and variety of their ethnic communities. Following the Polish-Soviet War, a large part of its population belonged to national minorities. The census of that year allocates 30.8% of the population in the minority.[25] In 1931, the population of Poland was 31,916,000, including 15,428,000 males and 16,488,000 females. By January 1939, the population of Poland increased to 35,100,000. This total included 240,000 in Zaolzie which was under Polish control from October 1938 until August 1939.[26] The population density was 90 persons per square km. In 1921, 24% of the population lived in towns and cities, by 1931 the ratio grew to 27%. Altogether, in 1921, there were 611 towns and cities in the country, by 1931 there were 636 municipalities. The six biggest cities of Poland (as for January 1, 1939) were WarsawŁódźLwówPoznańKraków andVilnius (Wilno). In 1931, Poland had the second largest Jewish population in the world, and one-fifth of all Jews resided within Poland's borders (approx. 3,136,000, roughly 10% of the entire Polish population).[25]
Norman Davies gives the results of Polish census of 1931 "according to linguistic criteria" as follows:[27] Poles, 68.9% of the population, Ukrainians, 13.9%, Jews, 8.7%, Belarusians, 3.1%, Germans, 2.3%, and Other, 3.1%. The results of Polish census of 1931 according to language and religion are as follows.[28]
Breakout of Total 1931 Polish Population by Language and Religion
LanguageTotalRoman CatholicsGreek CatholicsEastern OrthodoxEvangelical(Luthern)Other ChristianJewishOther
Polish21,993,00020,333,000487,000497,000219,00055,000372,00030,000
Ukrainian/Belarusian6,278,000107,0002,845,0003,239,0009,00073,0001,0004,000
Lithuanian83,00083,000------
Czech38,0008,000-22,0006,0001,000--
German741,000118,000-
599,00016,0007,0001,000
Yiddish2,732,000-----2,731,0001,000
Other50,00020,0004,0004,0002,000
3,00017,000
Total31,915,00020,670,0003,336,0003,762,000835,000145,0003,114,00053,000
Figures may not add due to rounding. Source:U.S. Bureau of the Census The Population of Poland Ed. W. Parker Mauldin, Washington- 1954
Breakout of Total 1931 Polish Population by Language and Religion
Figures as % of Total Population
LanguageTotalRoman CatholicsGreek CatholicsEastern OrthodoxEvangelicalOther ChristianJewishOther
Polish68.9%63.7%1.5%1.6%0.7%0.2%1.2%0.1%
Ukrainian/Belarusian19.7%0.3%8.9%10.1%-0.2%--
Lithuanian0.3%0.3%------
Czech0.1%--0.1%----
German2.3%0.4%-
1.9%0.1%--
Yiddish8.6%-----8.6%-
Other0.2%0.1%-----0.1%
Total100%64.8%10.5%11.8%2.6%.5%9.8%.2%
Figures may not add due to rounding. Source:U.S. Bureau of the Census The Population of Poland Ed. W. Parker Mauldin, Washington- 1954
In the southeast, Ukrainian settlements were present in the regions east of Chełm and in the Carpathians east of Nowy Sącz. The three main native higlander populations were Łemkowie,Bojkowie and Huculi. In all the towns and cities there were large concentrations of Yiddish-speaking Jews. The Polish ethnographic area stretched eastward: in eastern LithuaniaBelarus, and western Ukraine, all of which had a mixed population, Poles predominated not only in the cities but also in numerous rural districts. There were significant Polish minorities in Daugavpils (inLatvia), Minsk (in Belarus), Bucovina (in Romania), and Kiev (in Ukraine) (see Polish minority in the Soviet UnionPolish Autonomous District).

[edit]Second World War (1939–1945)

See supplements: Occupation of PolandWorld War II crimes in PolandHolocaust in Poland
In the beginning of the war (September 1939) the territory of Poland was divided between the Nazi Germany and the USSR. By the late-1941 the Soviets were overrun by Nazi Germany over entire territory of the former Second Polish Republic but the 1944-1945 the Red Army's offensive drove the Nazi forces out.
After both occupiers divided the territory of Poland between themselves, they conducted a series of actions aimed at suppression of Polish culture and repression of much of the Polish people. In August 2009 the Polish Institute of National Remembrance (IPN) researchers estimated Poland's dead (including Polish Jews) at between 5.47 and 5.67 million (due to German actions) and 150,000 (due to Soviet), or around 5.62 and 5.82 million total.[29] About 90% of Polish Jews were murdered by the Nazis during the Holocaust; many others emigrated in the succeeding years.
Poland's Population Balance (1939–1950)[30][31]
Description (see: Legend)TotalPolesJewsGermansOthers
(Ukrainians/Belarusians)
1. Population 1939 (by Language Spoken)35,000,00024,300,0003,200,000800,0006,700,000
2Natural Increase 1939-19451,300,0001,000,000

300,000
3. Transfer of German Population(760,000)

(760,000)
4 A. Deaths Due to German Occupation(5,670,000)(2,770,000)(2,800,000)
(100,000)
4 B. Deaths Due to Soviet Occupation(150,000)(150,000)


5Population Remaining in the USSR(7,800,000)(1,000,000)(100,000)0(6,700,000)
6. Emigration to the West(480,000)(280,000)(200,000)

7. Population gain Recovered Territories1,260,0001,130,0000130,0000
8. Re-Immigration 1946-50200,000200,000000
9Natural Increase 1946-19502,100,0002,100,000000
10. Population 195025,000,00024,530,000100,000170,000200,000
1. Population 1939 -Polish sources allocate the population by the primary language spoken, not by religion. Most Jews spoke Yiddish, however included with the Poles are about 200,000 Polish speaking Jews who are classified with the Polish group. Included with the Poles are 1,300,000 Eastern Orthodox & Greek Catholic adherents who are sometimes classified with the Ukrainian and Belarusian groups.[32]
2. Natural Increase October 1939-December 1945 -After the war Polish demographers calculated the estimated natural population growth that occurred during the war.[33]
3. Transfer of German Population Most of the ethnic German population fled during the war. In 1950 only about 40,000 of the pre-war ethnic German group remained in Poland in 1950, most of whom emigrated later in the 1950s.[34]
4. War Dead In August 2009 the Polish Institute of National Remembrance (IPN) put the figure of Poland's dead at between 5,620,000 and 5,820,000. The IPN's figures include 3 million Polish Jews who died in the Holocaust(200,000 included with Polish speakers); as well as 150,000 victims of Soviet repression. The figures also include Poles killed in 1943-44 during the massacres of Poles in Volhynia[35][36][37]
Deaths Due to German Occupation
Poles-The Institute of National Remembrance (IPN) figure for deaths of Poles due the German occupation is 2,770,000. This figure includes "Direct War Losses" -543,000; "Murdered in Camps and in Pacification" -506,000; "Deaths in prisons and Camps" 1,146,000; "Deaths outside of prisons and Camps" 473,000; "Murdered in Eastern Regions" 100,000; "Deaths in other countries" 2,000. These figures include about 200,000 Polish speaking Jews who are considered Poles in Polish sources.[38]
Jews-Polish researchers have determined that the Nazis murdered 1,860,000 Polish Jews in the extermination camps in Poland, plus another 1.0 million Polish Jewish deaths in prisons and ghettos. In addition 970,000 Jews from other nations were murdered in the Nazi extermination camps in Poland.[39]
Included in the Polish figures of war dead are 2.0 million Polish citizens in the Polish areas annexed by the Soviet Union[40] Contemporary Russian sources also include these losses with Soviet war deaths.[41]
Deaths Due to Soviet Occupation
The Polish Institute of National Remembrance (IPN) researchers estimated 150,000 Polish citizens were killed due to Soviet repression. Since the collapse of the USSR, Polish scholars have been able to do research in the Soviet archives on Polish losses during the Soviet occupation.[42] Andrzej Paczkowski puts the number of Polish deaths at 90–100,000 of the 1.0 million persons deported and 30,000 executed by the Soviets.[43]
5. Population Remaining in the USSR The number of Poles and Jews who remained in the USSR after the war was estimated at about 1.4 million by Polish scholar and historian Krystyna Kersten. Included with the Poles remaining in the USSR are about 700,000 Eastern Orthodox & Greek Catholic adherents who are sometimes classified with the Ukrainian and Belarusian groups.[40]
6. Emigration to the West Poles and Jews who remained in non communist countries after the war.
7. Population gain Recovered Territories Germans remaining in Poland after the war in the Recovered Territories. This group included 1,130,000 bi-lingual Polish-German persons who declared their allegiance to Poland. Also remaining in 1950 were 94,000 German nationals, 36,000 Germans from pre-war Danzig and 1,500 ethnic Germans of other nations. Most of this group emigrated to Germany after 1956, the ethnic German population remaining in the 1990s was about 300,000.[44]
8. Reimmigration 1946-50 Poles resident in western Europe before the war, primarily in Germany and France, who returned to Poland after the war.[45]
9. Natural Increase 1946-1950 This is the official Polish government data for births and natural deaths from January 1946 until the census of December 1950.[45]
10. Population December 1950 Per Census The total population per the December 1950 census was 25 million. A breakdown by ethnic group was not given. However, we can estimate the Jewish population based on the postwar census taken by the Jewish community.Data for the Germans and others who remained in Poland after the war can be estimated using the 1946 Polish census[45]

[edit]Post-Second World War (1945–present)

[edit]Early post-war period

Before World War II, a third of Poland's population was composed of ethnic minorities. After the war, however, Poland's minorities were mostly gone, due to the 1945 revision of borders, and theHolocaust. Under the National Repatriation Office (Państwowy Urząd Repatriacyjny), millions of Poles were forced to leave their homes in the eastern Kresy region and settle in the western former German territories. At the same time approximately 5 million remaining Germans (about 8 million had already fled or had been expelled and about 1 million had been killed in 1944-46) were similarly expelled from those territories into the Allied occupation zones. Ukrainian and Belarusian minorities found themselves now mostly within the borders of the Soviet Union; those who opposed this new policy (like the Ukrainian Insurgent Army in the Bieszczady Mountains region) were suppressed by the end of 1947 in the Operation Vistula.
The population of Jews in Poland, which formed the largest Jewish community in pre-war Europe at about 3.3 million people, was all but destroyed by 1945. Approximately 3 million Jews died of starvation in ghettos and labor camps, were slaughtered at the German Nazi extermination camps or by the Einsatzgruppen death squads. Between 40,000 and 100,000 Polish Jews survived the Holocaust in Poland, and another 50,000 to 170,000 were repatriated from the Soviet Union, and 20,000 to 40,000 from Germany and other countries. At its postwar peak, there were 180,000 to 240,000 Jews in Poland, settled mostly in Warsaw, ŁódźKraków and Wrocław.[46]
According to the national census, which took place on February 14, 1946, population of Poland was 23 930 000, out of which 32% lived in cities and towns, and 68% lived in the countryside. The 1950 census (December 3, 1950) showed the population rise to 25 008 000, and the 1960 census (December 6, 1960) placed the population of Poland at 29 776 000.[47] In 1950, Warsaw was the biggest city of the country, with population of 804 000. Second was Lodz (pop. 620 000), third Kraków (pop. 344 000), fourth Poznan (pop. 321 000), and fifth Wroclaw (pop. 309 000).
Females were in the majority in the country. In 1931, there were 105.6 women for 100 men. In 1946, the difference grew to 118.5/100, but in subsequent years, number of males grew, and in 1960, the ratio was 106.7/100.

[edit]Current situation


Demographics of Poland, Data of FAO, 1961-2010 ; Number of inhabitants in millions.
Most Germans were expelled from Poland and the annexed east German territories at the end of the war, while many Ukrainians, Rusyns and Belarusians lived in territories incorporated into the USSR. Small Ukrainian, Belarusian, Slovak, and Lithuanian minorities reside along the borders, and a German minority is concentrated near the southwestern city of Opole and in Masuria. Groups of Ukrainians and Polish Ruthenians also live in western Poland, where they were forcefully resettled by communists.
As a result of the migrations and the Soviet Unions radically altered borders under the rule of Joseph Stalin, the population of Poland became one of the most ethnically homogeneous in the world. Virtually all people in Poland claim Polish nationality, with Polish as their native tongue. Ukrainians resp. Rusyns, the largest minority group, are scattered in various northern districts. Lesser numbers of Belarusians and Lithuanians live in areas adjoining Belarus and Lithuania. The Jewish community, almost entirely Polonized, has been greatly reduced. In Silesia a significant segment of the population, of mixed Polish and German ancestry, tends to declare itself as Polish or German according to political circumstances. Minorities of Germans remain in Pomerania, Silesia, East Prussia, and Lubus.
Small populations of Polish Tatars still exist. Some Polish towns, mainly in northeastern Poland have mosques. Tatars arrived asmercenary soldiers beginning in the late 14th century. The Tatar population reached approximately 100,000 in 1630 but is less than 500 in 2000. See also Islam in Poland.[48]

[edit]General statistics. Tables

Demographics estimates for period before statistics and reliable data collection from censuses should be seen as giving only a rough order of magnitude, not any precise number.[3]

[edit]Changes of Poland's population through centuries

DatePopulationPopulation density
km²
State
200938,130,302[49]
Poland
200638 125 000122,0Poland
200038 253 955122,0Poland
199538 610 000
Poland
199038 183 000
Poland
7 XII 198837 879 000121,1People's Republic of Poland
7 XII 197835 061 000112,2People's Republic of Poland
8 XII 197032 642 000104,4People's Republic of Poland
6 XII 196029 776 00095,3People's Republic of Poland
3 XII 195025 008 00080,0People's Republic of Poland
14 II 194623 930 00076,6People's Republic of Poland
31 XII 193834 849 00089,7Second Polish Republic
9 XII 193132 107 00082,6Second Polish Republic
30 IX 192127 177 00069,9Second Polish Republic
191122 110 000
Partitioned Poland
184611 107 000
Partitioned Poland
c. 177214 000 00019Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
c. 165011 000 000
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
c. 15007 500 00015 in Poland
5 in Grand Duchy
Polish–Lithuanian union
13702 500 0009,3Kingdom of Poland
13201 750 0008Kingdom of Poland
c. 10001 800 0007Kingdom of Poland
Sources: GUSThe World Factbook

[edit]Urban demographics statistics

Changes in the population of major Polish cities.
Note that this table contains information on some cities that are not within the borders of modern Poland, and others that have not been within those borders for many centuries. See Territorial changes of Poland for more details on that issue.
Year/CityWarszawa (Warsaw)KrakówPoznań[50]Wrocław (Breslau)Gdańsk (Danzig)Toruń (Thorn)Szczecin (Stettin)Wilno (Vilnius)Troki (Trakai)Lwów (Lviv)Kijów (Kiev)
1150





7000[51]



1200





30000



1242


12000[51]






1300
14000[51]
14000[51]

6000[51]20000[51]


1325


15000[51]






1329


16000[51]






1348


22000[51]
10000




1367



7700[51]





1378



8500[51]12000




1387




13000
30000[51]


1400
18000[51]
21000[51]

10000[51]20000[51]50000[51]

1430



20000[51]10000




1470


21000[51]






15006500[8]18000[8]-22000[51]6500[8]-20000[51]21000[51]30000[51][8]8000[8]-10000
25000[51]
8000[8]
1525


22000[51]






1549

22000[51]







15509000[51]

35000[51]


30000[51]


156410000[51]









1579


34200[51]






159520000[51]









160025000[8]-35000[51]26000[51]-28000[8]20000[8][52]-25000[51]33000[51]49000[51]-70000[8]12000[8]-1500012000[51]40000[51]
10000[51]-20000[8]
1609


37000[51]






1622



7000018000



10500[51]
162448000[51]









1650






45000[51]


1653

21000[51]







1655

14000[52]







166914500[51]


12000





170021000[51]30000[51]
40000[51]50000[51]

40000[51]
20000[51]
1709

12000[52]


11000[51]



1711


41000[51]






1727


41000[51]





11000[51]
1742


41000[51]





20000[51]
1747


50000[51]






175028000[51]

51000[51]48000[51]
13000[51]21000[51]
25000[51]22000[51]
1756


55000[51]






176030000[51]









1766









29000[51]
1772
15000[51]




21000[51]
30000[51]
1775




10000


39000[51]
1792120000[51]
15000[52]







1796

16000[52]

6200



19000[51]
1797

12000[51]







1798
24500[51]








180075000[51]25000[51]19000[52]65000[51]41000[51]18500[51]690025500[51]
42000[51]19000[51]
1802
27000[51]








1803

16000[51]-18000[52]

7000


44500
1811









23000[51]
1824

22000[52]

8500




1829140000[51]









1831

31000[52]

8600




1845




11000



50000[51]
1848

42000[52]







1849

48000[51]111000[51]64000[51]1050047000[51]45000[51]
75000[51]
1850163000[51]42000[51]43000[51]115000[51]64000[51]
48000[51]56000[51]
71000[51]
1851164000[51]

121000[51]




80000[51]
1852

44000[51]
67000[51]
52000[51]


56000[51]
18601580005000043000[52]-51000



60000
68000
1870
6600054400[52]







1890383000
69900[52]65000
27000
90000
110000
1895

73200[52]







190059380085000110000[52]



139000
150000
1905

136800[52]







1910781000143000156700[52]

46200
181000
196000
1917

156400[52]







1921936700184000169400[52]

37400
129000
219000
19311179500219000246700[52]



195000
312000
19391289000259000275000[52]

80000
209000
318000
1946

268000[52]

68000




1950

32700[52]

80600




1960

408100[52]

104900




1970

471900[52]

129900




1975

516000[52]

149200




1980

552900[52]

174400




1990

590000

202200




1995

578900

204700




2000

571600

204300




20041692854757430570778636268459072208278411900



[edit]References

  1. ^ Jerzy Lukowski, Hubert Zawadzki, A Concise History of Poland, Cambridge University Press, 2001, ISBN 0-521-55917-0Google Print, p.6
  2. ^ Henryk Łowmiański, Economic problems of the early feudal Polish State, Acta Poloniae Historica, III (1960), p.7-32.
  3. a b c d Aleksander GieysztorKingdom of Poland and Grand Duchy of Lithuania, in Christopher Allmand (ed.), The New Cambridge Medieval History, Cambridge University Press, 2005, ISBN 0-521-38296-3Print, p.727
  4. ^ Jerzy Lukowski, Hubert Zawadzki, A Concise History of Poland, Cambridge University Press, 2001, ISBN 0-521-55917-0Google Print, p.6
  5. ^ Based on 1493 population map (p.92) from Iwo Cyprian PogonowskiPoland a Historical Atlas, Hippocrene Books, 1987, ISBN 0-88029-394-2
  6. a b Stephen R. Burant and Voytek Zubek, Eastern Europe's Old Memories and New Realities: Resurrecting the Polish–Lithuanian Union, East European Politics and Societies 1993; 7; 370, online, p.4
  7. ^ Amdrzej Janeczek, Town and Country in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, in S. R. Epstein, Town and Country in Europe, 1300-1800, Cambridge University Press, 2004, ISBN 0-521-54804-7,Google Print, p.156
  8. a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Robert Bideleux, Ian Jeffries, A History of Eastern Europe: Crisis and Change, Routledge, 1998, ISBN 0-415-16112-6Google Print, p.129
  9. ^ Total and Jewish population based of Frazee; others are estimations from Pogonowski (see following reference). Charles A. Frazee, World History the Easy Way, Barron's Educational Series, ISBN 0-8120-9766-1Google Print, 50
  10. a b c Based on 1618 population map (p.115), 1618 languages map (p.119), 1657-1667 losses map (p.128) and 1717 map (p.141) from Iwo Cyprian PogonowskiPoland a Historical Atlas, Hippocrene Books, 1987, ISBN 0-88029-394-2
  11. ^ Robert Bideleux, Ian Jeffries, A History of Eastern Europe: Crisis and Change, Routledge, 1998, ISBN 0-415-16112-6Google Print, p.151
  12. ^ Linda GordonCossack Rebellions: Social Turmoil in the Sixteenth Century Ukraine, SUNY Press, 1983, ISBN 0-87395-654-0Google Print, p.51
  13. ^ Aleksander GellaDevelopment of Class Structure in Eastern Europe: Poland and Her Southern Neighbors, SUNY Press, 1998, ISBN 0-88706-833-2Google Print, p.13
  14. ^ "Poland, history of" Encyclopædia Britannica from Encyclopædia Britannica Premium Service. [1] [Accessed February 10, 2006]. and "Ukraine" Encyclopædia Britannica from Encyclopædia Britannica Premium Service. [2] [Accessed February 14, 2006].
  15. ^ Edward Fram, Ideals face reality: Jewish law and life in Poland, 1550-1655, Hebrew Union College Press, 1997, ISBN 0-87820-420-2Google Print, p.16-18
  16. ^ Czesław Domański Zasłużeni statystycy dla nauki
  17. a b c Robert Bideleux, Ian Jeffries, A History of Eastern Europe: Crisis and Change, Routledge, 1998, ISBN 0-415-16112-6Google Print, p.155
  18. a b Norman Davies, God's Playground: A History of Poland in Two Volumes, Oxford University Press, 2005, ISBN 0-19-925340-4Google Print, p.132
  19. a b Jerzy Lukowski; W. H. Zawadzki (2001). A Concise History of Poland: Jerzy Lukowski and Hubert Zawadzki. Cambridge University Press. pp. 96–98. ISBN 978-0-521-55917-1. Retrieved 8 January 2013.
  20. a b Davies, Norman (2005). God's Playground. A History of Poland. The Origins to 1795I (revised ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 394. ISBN 978-0-19-925339-5.
  21. ^ Jerzy Lukowski; W. H. Zawadzki (2001). A Concise History of Poland: Jerzy Lukowski and Hubert Zawadzki. Cambridge University Press. pp. 101–103. ISBN 978-0-521-55917-1. Retrieved 8 January 2013.
  22. a b c Piotr Stefan WandyczThe Price of Freedom: A History of East Central Europe from the Middle Ages to the Present, Routledge (UK), 2001, ISBN 0-415-25491-4Google Print, p.133
  23. ^ Based on 1815 population map (p.161-163) from Iwo Cyprian PogonowskiPoland a Historical Atlas, Hippocrene Books, 1987, ISBN 0-88029-394-2
  24. ^ Jerzy Lukowski, Hubert Zawadzki, A Concise History of Poland, Cambridge University Press, 2001, ISBN 0-521-55917-0Google Print, p.129
  25. a b Joseph MarcusSocial and Political History of the Jews in Poland, 1919-1939, Mouton Publishing, 1983, ISBN 90-279-3239-5Google Books, p. 17
  26. ^ London Nakl. Stowarzyszenia Prawników Polskich w Zjednoczonym Królestwie [1941], Polska w liczbach. Poland in numbers. Zebrali i opracowali Jan Jankowski i Antoni Serafinski. Przedmowa zaopatrzyl Stanislaw Szurlej. The Polish government in exile also included the 240,000 inhabitants of Cieszyn with the Polish population.
  27. ^ Norman DaviesGod's Playground, Columbia University Press, 2005, ISBN 0-231-12819-3Google Print, p.299
  28. ^ U.S. Bureau of the Census The Population of Poland Ed. W. Parker Mauldin, Washington- 1954
  29. ^ Wojciech Materski and Tomasz Szarota (eds.).Polska 1939–1945. Straty osobowe i ofiary represji pod dwiema okupacjami.Institute of National Remembrance(IPN) Warszawa 2009 ISBN 978-83-7629-067-6 (Introduction reproduced here)
  30. ^ Piesowicz, Kazimierz. Demographic effects of World War II. [Demograficzne skutki II wojny swiatowej.] Studia Demograficzne, No. 1/87, 1987. 103-36 pp. Warsaw, Poland. (Piesowicz put the total war dead at 6.0 million. He also notes that all the figures are approximated.)
  31. ^ Wojciech Materski and Tomasz SzarotaPolska 1939–1945. Straty osobowe i ofiary represji pod dwiema okupacjami.Institute of National Remembrance(IPN) Warszawa 2009 ISBN 978-83-7629-067-6
  32. ^ U.S. Bureau of the Census The Population of Poland Ed. W. Parker Mauldin, Washington-1954
  33. ^ U.S. Bureau of the Census The Population of Poland Ed. W. Parker Mauldin, Washington-1954. ( In 1938 the birth rate was 2.45%, natural deaths 1.4%. The birth rate (1938 =100)in 1939=98,1940=93, 1941=88,1942=84,1943=78,1944=80 1945=90 If we take these birth rates and the 1.4% natural death rate of 1938 as being constant, we will derive an increase of 1.300 million from 1939-45.)
  34. ^ Stanisław Jankowiak, Wysiedlenie i emigracja ludności niemieckiej w polityce władz polskich w latach 1945-1970, p.211-212, Instytut Pamięci Narodowej, Warszawa 2005, ISBN 83-89078-80-5
  35. ^ Wojciech Materski and Tomasz Szarota. Polska 1939–1945. Straty osobowe i ofiary represji pod dwiema okupacjami .Institute of National Remembrance(IPN) Warszawa 2009 ISBN 978-83-7629-067-6,
  36. ^ Polskie Radio August 28,2009 Institute of National Remembrance (IPN) has published a new report
  37. ^ Gniazdowski, Mateusz. Losses Inflicted on Poland by Germany during World War II. Assessments and Estimates—an Outline The Polish Quarterly of International Affairs, 2007, no. 1.This article is available for purchase from the Central and Eastern European Online Library at http://www.ceeol.com
  38. ^ Wojciech Materski and Tomasz Szarota. Polska 1939–1945. Straty osobowe i ofiary represji pod dwiema okupacjami .Institute of National Remembrance(IPN) Warszawa 2009 ISBN 978-83-7629-067-6, Pages 29-30
  39. ^ Wojciech Materski and Tomasz Szarota. Polska 1939–1945. Straty osobowe i ofiary represji pod dwiema okupacjami .Institute of National Remembrance(IPN) Warszawa 2009 ISBN 978-83-7629-067-6, Page 32
  40. a b Krystyna Kersten, Szacunek strat osobowych w Polsce Wschodniej. Dzieje Najnowsze Rocznik XXI- 1994.
  41. ^ Rossiiskaia Akademiia nauk. Liudskie poteri SSSR v period vtoroi mirovoi voiny: sbornik statei. Sankt-Peterburg 1995 ISBN 5-86789-023-6.
  42. ^ Wojciech Materski and Tomasz Szarota. Polska 1939–1945. Straty osobowe i ofiary represji pod dwiema okupacjami .Institute of National Remembrance(IPN) Warszawa 2009 ISBN 978-83-7629-067-6, Pages 201-327
  43. ^ Stephane Courtois, The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression, Harvard Univ Pr, 1999 ISBN 0-674-07608-7 Page 372
  44. ^ Stanisław Jankowiak, Wysiedlenie i emigracja ludności niemieckiej w polityce władz polskich w latach 1945-1970Instytut Pamięci Narodowej, Warszawa 2005, ISBN 83-89078-80-5 p.211-212
  45. a b c Ludnosc Polski w XX wieku / Andrzej Gawryszewski. Warsaw 2005.
  46. ^ "Jews in Poland Since 1939" (PDF), YIVO Institute for Jewish Research, The YIVO Encyclopedia of Jews in Eastern Europe, Yale University Press, 2005
  47. ^ [Statistical Yearbook of Poland, Warsaw, 1965]
  48. ^ (Polish) Mniejszości narodowe i etniczne w Polsce on the pages of Polish Ministry of Internal Affairs and Administration. Retrieved on 9 September 2007.
  49. ^ "Eurostat: Country Profiles: Poland". Statistical Office of the European Communities. 2009. Retrieved 2009-02-28.
  50. ^ See details: Historical population of Poznań
  51. a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cgch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg Tertius Chandler, 1987, Four Thousand Years of Urban Growth: An Historical Census. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellon Press
  52. a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa Jerzy Topolski (ed.) Dzieje Poznania, Warszawa-Poznań 1988-, Państwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe ISBN 83-01-08194-5
    Maria Trzeciakowska, Lech TrzeciakowskiW dziewiętnastowiecznym Poznaniu. Życie codzienne miasta 1815-1914, Poznań 1982, Wydawnictwo Poznańskie ISBN 83-210-0316-8

[edit]External links





POLAND

historical demographical data of the administrative division from 1945 onwards, source: http://www.populstat.info/Europe/polandp.htm


WOJEWÓDZTWOcapital
surface/sq.kmsurface/sq.mi
e2002e2000mre1999e1998u19971995b1992u1990uc1989e19861984u1980ue197819751973b1970ue1968/69?c1966ue1964?c1960ue1958e1951?c1946
codepos.
particularsvariants of the name
source:




SHEWSHTBSYBBLBLBMWSYLBLBSYSYSYLBGLSYGLSYGLHAGL
division since 1998.08
DolnoslaskieWroclaw
199487702
2963,12975,72977,62982,12985,0


















DSsw
Kujawsko-pomorskieBydgoszcz
179706938
2102,12100,62100,82100,12098,0


















KPcnw
LodzkieLódz
182197034
2620,62649,42653,02663,62673,0


















LDc
LubelskieLublin
251149697
2220,62233,42234,92239,52242,0


















LBe
LubuskieGorzów Wielkopolski
139845399
1026,01023,51023,51022,51020,0


















LUsw
MalopolskieKraków
151445847
3241,53224,13222,53215,93207,0


















MPsc
MazowieckieWarszawa
3559713744
5078,55067,05070,05066,65065,0


















MWcn
OpolskieOpole
94123634
1084,01087,41088,31089,61091,0


















OPsw
PodkarpackieRzeszów
179266921
2136,82126,52126,02122,22117,0


















PKse
PodlaskieBialystok
201807791
1219,01221,91222,71223,81224,0


















PDne
PomorskieGdansk
182937063
2211,42193,02192,32185,72179,0


















PMnc
SlaskieKatowice
122944747
4813,54861,34865,54882,44894,0


















SAsc
SwietokrzyskieKielce
116724507
1312,01324,21322,71326,21328,0


















STcse
Warminsko-mazurskieOlsztyn
242039345
1471,31456,61465,61463,51460,0


















WMne
WielkopolskiePoznan
2982611516
3366,03355,93355,33351,43346,0


















WPcw
ZachodniopomorskieSzczecin
229028842
1735,41733,01732,81731,81730,0


















ZPnw







9,0
TOTAL:Warszawa
312684120727
38601,838642,538653,538667,038659,0
WOJEWÓDZTWO
division from 1975-1998.08
WarszwaskieWarszawa
37881462





2416,52421,02421,62419,12422,02396,02319,02226,02118,0
1998,0







WZ
BialskopodlaskieBiala Podlaska
53482065





309,7306,7305,3304,5300,0296,0287,0282,0283,0
280,0







BP
BialostockieBialystok
100553882





700,1697,0692,8690,3672,0666,0641,0626,0614,0
597,0







BL
BielskieBielsko-Biala
37041430





915,1911,5900,2895,3879,0865,0830,0798,0766,0
735,0







BS
BydgoskieBydgoszcz
103493996





1130,01120,31110,81106,61090,01074,01038,01015,0982,0
940,0







BG
ChelmskieChelm
38661493





250,1248,5247,2246,2243,0239,0231,0224,0221,0
220,0







CL
CiechanowskieCiechanów
63622456





436,2431,4428,4426,2420,0416,0405,0400,0399,0
396,0







CC
CzestochowskieCzestochowa
61822387





782,7748,0776,7776,1770,0763,0748,0734,0723,0
713,0







CZ
ElblaskieElblag
61032356





490,4483,2478,9476,6470,0463,0442,0430,0420,0
411,0







EL
GdanskieGdansk
73942855





1450,11445,01431,61423,31411,01387,01334,01299,01221,0
1138,0







GD
GorzowskieGorzów Wielkopolskie
84843276





509,5505,6500,7498,3487,0479,0455,0444,0429,0
412,0







GZ
JeleniogórskieJelenia Góra
43791690





524,2519,2517,9517,0512,0507,0493,0491,0483,0
475,0







JG
KaliskieKalisz
65122514





721,5715,6710,8708,3700,0691,0668,0654,0640,0
626,0







KS
KatowickieKatowice
66502568





3936,34013,23988,83968,33946,03895,03734,03578,03440,0
3245,0







KT
KieleckieKielce
92113556





1137,21127,71126,71126,01113,01101,01069,01050,01030,0
1014,0







KL
KoninskieKonin
51391984





478,8472,4469,2467,6461,0455,0441,0429,0424,0
416,0







KN
KoszalinskieKoszalin
84703270





520,7513,7508,2504,2494,0484,0462,0445,0428,0
404,0







KZ
KrakówskieKraków
32541256





1239,51238,11231,61227,81214,01205,01168,01151,01098,0
1045,0







KK
KrosnienskieKrosno
57022202





505,3500,7495,0491,8480,0470,0448,0431,0418,0
405,0







KR
LegnickieLegnica
40371559





522,6521,5515,8512,0497,0485,0459,0435,0405,0
367,0







LG
LeszczynskieLeszno
41541604





395,8391,5386,8384,5378,0373,0358,0347,0340,0
334,0







LS
LubelskieLublin
67922622





1025,11022,61016,41013,4992,0977,0935,0908,0875,0
824,0







LB
LomzynskieLomza
66842581





353,7349,0346,7345,6341,0337,0326,0321,0320,0
325,0







LM
LodzkieLódz
1523588





1121,21132,41139,51142,71150,01149,01128,01103,01063,0
1033,0







LD
NowosadeckieNowy Sacz
55762153





728,1709,5697,9692,2674,0659,0629,0609,0600,0
579,0







NW
OlsztynskieOlsztyn
123274756





769,2761,3753,0748,5733,0717,0681,0675,0654,0
628,0







OL
OpolskieOpole
85353295





1027,41023,81018,61014,91020,01006,0975,0981,0962,0
929,0







OP
OstroleckieOstroleka
64982509





407,5400,5397,3395,0372,0382,0371,0363,0361,0
359,0







OS
PilskiePila
82053168





492,1485,7480,7478,0469,0460,0437,0425,0414,0
403,0







PS
PiotrkowskiePiotrków Trybunalski
62662419





644,6644,2642,6642,0637,0628,0604,0587,0582,0
578,0







PT
PlockiePlock
51171976





521,9518,6516,4515,4511,0507,0496,0487,0479,0
467,0







PL
PoznanskiePoznan
81513147





1351,01344,21334,11327,91308,01289,01238,01201,01157,0
1103,0







PN
PrzemyskiePrzemysl
44371713





414,1409,6406,8405,1398,0392,0380,0378,0373,0
366,0







PZ
RadomskieRadom
72942816





763,0755,5751,1748,3733,0725,0702,0685,0674,0
664,0







RD
RzeszowskieRzeszów
43971698





743,9734,1723,7717,4698,0683,0649,0626,0602,0
579,0







RZ
SiedleckieSiedlce
84993281





661,5655,3651,4649,3640,0633,0616,0603,0602,0
601,0







SD
SieradzkieSieradz
48691880





412,6408,7408,2408,0403,0399,0392,0387,0388,0
388,0







SR
SkierniewickieSkierniewice
39601529





423,8421,7419,3418,2412,0408,0397,0391,0388,0
384,0







SK
SlupskieSlupsk
74532878





424,9419,3413,8410,4400,0391,0370,0365,0553,0
335,0







SL
SuwalskieSuwalki
104904050





484,7477,1470,6466,3454,0443,0423,0418,0412,0
401,0







SW
SzczecinskieSzczecin
99823854





989,2979,5972,1967,3951,0933,0898,0878,0841,0
789,0







SZ
TarnobrzeskieTarnobrzeg
62832426





609,2604,3599,1596,4584,0577,0556,0542,0532,0
520,0







TB
TarnowskieTarnów
41511603





690,7678,4670,3666,0647,0634,0607,0589,0574,0
561,0







TR
TorunskieTorun
53482065





669,8662,6659,1655,7646,0634,0611,0601,0580,0
557,0







TN
WalbrzyskieWalbrzych
41681609





741,2740,0740,9741,2738,0732,0716,0721,0710,0
702,0







WB
WloclawskieWloclawek
44021700





435,0430,8429,4428,9427,0424,0413,0407,0402,0
396,0







WL
WroclawskieWroclaw
62872427





1137,31132,81128,81126,31119,01109,01076,01049,01015,0
970,0







WR
ZamojskieZamosc
69802695





494,0490,8490,4489,8489,0472,0486,0471,0472,0
475,0







ZM
ZielonogórskieZielona Góra
88683424





672,2664,7660,0657,4654,0639,0609,0591,0575,0
553,0







ZG
TOTAL:Warszawa
312685120723





38581,238388,838183,238037,637559,037049,035751,034851,034042,0
32640,0
WOJEWÓDZTWO


















1973b1970ue1968/69?c1966ue1964?c1960ue1958e1951?c1946
division from 1945? until 1975source:

















SYLBGLSYGLSYGLHAGL
BialystokBialystok
231538939














1188,01173,01177,01169,01139,31090,01086,01194,0917,6
BydgoszczBydgoszcz
208928066














1949,01912,01871,01855,01803,51706,01664,01566,01406,5




Pomorze
GdanskGdansk
110364261














1511,01465,01393,01372,01312,31219,01165,01065,0732,1
KatowiceKatowice
95503686














3778,03691,03585,03554,03458,63264,03146,02608,02823,4




Slask Dabrowski
KielceKielce
135127534














1905,01889,01910,01904,01882,61819,01814,01858,01717,3
KoszalinKoszalin
181046990














815,0793,0774,0765,0730,2686,0670,0789,0




formed ca 1955 from parts of Bydgoszcz, Gdansk and Szczecin
KrakówKraków
153555929














2214,02181,02159,02143,02088,41989,02013,02195,02133,4
LódzLódz
170976602














1678,01670,01675,01671,01651,31598,01615,02385,01772,4
LublinLublin
248769607














1946,01922,01920,01911,01876,11800,01777,02069,01889,7
OlsztynOlsztyn
210648133














992,0978,0973,0964,0929,0878,0857,0934,0351,8




Mazury
OpoleOpole
95543690














1074,01057,01027,01018,0987,7927,0909,01040,0




split ca 1955 from Slask (Dabrowski)
PoznanPoznan
2684910366














2224,02190,02159,02144,02090,21994,01976,02311,02422,1
RzeszówRzeszów
186377195














1792,01757,01720,01706,01664,61586,01605,01801,01535,4
SzczecinSzczecin
127544924














922,0897,0872,0860,0817,8755,0714,0941,0892,6




Pomorze Zachodnie
WarszawaWarszawa
2941011354














2537,02514,02483,02469,02415,92315,02305,03552,02114,4
WroclawWroclaw
189197306














2004,01973,01994,01982,01914,71799,01707,02604,01941,1




Slask Dolny
Zielona GóraZielona Góra
145765628














905,0882,0866,0857,0824,7777,0717,0884,0
city provinces:
Kraków

23089














610,0583,0540,2530,0505,4479,0455,0
Lódz

21483














774,0762,0750,4746,0734,3708,0691,0
496,9
Poznan

22085














486,0469,0446,7442,0429,3

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